barbera red wine

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At the turn of the 21st Century, it was Italy's third most-commonly planted red wine grape, after Sangiovese and Montepulciano. Barbera is high acid and low tannin, making it an approachable red wine that goes well with food. Like many grape varieties with a long history, the Barbera vine has seen mutation and clonal variation arise with different clones of the variety found in Piedmont, Lombardy, Emilia-Romagna and the Mezzogiorno. In the Lombardy region, it is seen as a varietal in Oltrepò Pavese with wines that range from slightly spritzy to semi-sparkling frizzante. The color of Barbera makes it a value blending grape and it was historically used in the Barolo & Barberesco region to add color to the naturally light Nebbiolo grape. Piedmont, Italy - Made from the Barbera grape, Sant'Orsola Barbera d'Asti has a fruity perfume when young that intensifies with time. Barbera … Barbera is found in the northwestern part of Italy, particularly in Monferrato, and to a lesser extent further south. Warmer sites produce Barberas with intensely ripe fruit and complex notes of cocoa, savory spice, anise and … [5] In 1985, the Piedmont region was rocked by a scandal involving Barbera producers illegally adding methanol to their wines,[6] killing over 30 people and causing many more to lose their sight. Restrictions apply. Northwest Italy is the viticultural home for Barbera, but Italian immigrants spread it through much of the New World, where its acidity is valued in blended wines for the 'freshness' it imparts. [3] In Argentina, it is widely grown with 1,061 hectares (2,620 acres) planted as of 2010, mostly in the Mendoza and San Juan provinces, and used mostly for blending. University of Adelaide Press. Barbera is a grape variety that is low in tannins, full bodied, deep in color, and high in acidity. This, coupled with reduced maceration time, contributed to the production of softer wines. [5] In the Alba region many of the best vineyard sites are dedicated to Nebbiolo with Barbera relegated to secondary location, which limits the quality and quantities of the wines labeled with the Barbera d'Alba DOC. In the 19th and 20th centuries, waves of Italian immigrants brought Barbera to the Americas where the vine took root in California and Argentina among other places. Australian wine producers have found some success with Barbera in Victoria. Barbera is one of the most savory Italian wines dominated by red fruit flavors of cherry, red … [1] Recent DNA evidence suggest that Barbera may be related to the French-Spanish vine Mourvedre. Because of the high acidity, it tends to pair well with rich foods like dark meat, cheeses, and mushrooms. It's a very popular grape in Piedmont – and accounts for nearly half the amount of vines grown in the region. [1], Barbera can adapt to a wide range of vineyard soils but tends to thrive most in less fertile calcareous soils and clay loam. [11] In addition to Washington, in the Umpqua AVA of Oregon plantings of Barbara are proving successful, as well as plantings in central and southern Arizona. For the … In fact, Barbera is … Excessive yields can diminish the fruit quality in the grape and accentuate Barbera's natural acidity and sharpness. Sandy soils can help limit the vigor and yields. While there is no officially defined Classico region, like Chianti Classico, the region of the Asti province between the towns of Nizza Monferrato, Vinchio, Castelnuovo Calcea, Agliano, Belveglio and Rocchetta is considered among locals to be the "heart" of Barbera in Piedmont. While some producers delay harvest in order to increase sugar levels as a balance to Barbera's acidity, over-ripeness can lead to raisiny flavors. Allen Lane. *See offer details. The different clones can be identified by the size and shape of their grape clusters with the smaller cluster clones producing the highest quality wine. This barbera from the Asti region offers aromas and flavours of cherry, red In 2001, the town of Nizza was officially recognized as a sub-region within the greater Barbera d'Asti DOC. In the Monferrato DOC, Barbera is blended with up to 15% Freisa, Grignolino and Dolcetto and can be slightly sparkling. The Oxford Companion to Wine (3rd ed.). Buy Barbera Wines Online The Barbera fruit is a dark-skinned grape variety that is grown in many wine regions all across Italy. A blend of Cabernet Merlot Zinfandel and Petite Syrah. The bad press and publicity saw a steady decline in Barbera sales and plantings, allowing the grape to be eclipsed by the Montepulciano grape as Italy's second most widely planted red grape variety in the late 1990s. [3] The acidity of Barbera make it a valued plantings in warm climate regions where acidification is usually needed. Wine Grapes: A Complete Guide to 1,368 Vine Varieties, Including Their Origins and Flavors. Barbera wine is famous for its crisp red fruit flavours. In the lightest versions notes of cherries, raspberries and blueberries and with notes of blackberry and black cherries in wines made of more ripe grapes. Barbera is such a promising variety for the Adelaide Hills, the range of styles as diverse as it is in Piedmont. Barbera del Monferrato DOC is usually a lighter wine than the other Barbera DOC (G) wines from the Asti and Alba area, but in any case this is a fresh red wine which pairs perfectly with summer meals. [1], In the 1970s, the French enologist Emile Peynaud recommended that Barbera producers use small oak barrels for fermentation and maturation in order to add subtle oak spice flavors and limited levels of oxygenation to soften the wine. In some vintages, these producers may even harvest their Barbera after Nebbiolo. Barbera d’Asti is one of Italy’s most popular wine grapes, grown not just in Piedmont but in many regions of Italy, including Lombardy, Emilia-Romagna, Lazio and Campania. At its best it is a rich, tangy, full-bodied wine characterized by an intense ruby-red color … See reviews and pricing for this wine. Click for ordering information Click for ordering information After years of being in the shadow of Nebbiolo this Italian variety is getting more … University of California Press. Red Wine White Wine Wine & Food Pairings Wine Terms Wine and Cheese Pairing Best of Lists The Enthusiast Top 100 Wines of 2020 100 Wines Under $15 of 2020 100 Best Wines to … As in Lombardy, Barbera is often softened by blending with the lighter Croatina as it is in the Val Tidone region for the DOC wine of Gutturnio. Shop Target for Barbera Red Wine you will love at great low prices. Oxford University Press. The iconic red wines of Piemonte: Barolo, Barbaresco and Barbera If you’re looking for some dinnertime inspiration, we’ve asked our favourite food bloggers what they like to eat with Barolo, Barbaresco and Barbera, Italy’s three iconic red wines., Italy’s three iconic red … [3], Outside Piedmont, Barbera is found throughout Italy, often as a component in mass vino da tavola blends. It is … As of 2010 there were 20,524 hectares (50,720 acres) of Barbera planted, making it the sixth most widely planted red grape variety in Italy. In recent years, the fashion of Italian grapes has caused more California winemakers to look into producing high quality varietal Barbera. In addition to the subtle oxygenation and spice notes, oak imparts to the wine ligneous wood tannins which give structure to the wine without adding as much astringent bite as the tannins derived from the phenolic compounds of the grape. Barbera d’Asti wine has a deep ruby red color and is quite light on the palate with light tannins and fresh acidity. So far these very young vines have produced fruity wines with strawberry notes and limited complexity and aging potential. The wine … Barbera is a grape variety that produces medium-bodied red wine that is fresh and fruity to drink on its own and can be enjoyed with a wide range of foods. [3] The earlier-ripening Barbera is grown on the cooler lower slopes below the Nebbiolo, and other secondary locations. In recent years, viticulturalists have been working with clonal selection to increase Barbera's resistance to the leafroll virus. ISBN 978-1-922064-67-7. http://www.adelaide.edu.au/press/titles/winegrapes/, D'Agata, Ian (2014). This allowed the Piedmontese winemakers in regions like Alba to give their best sites over to the more difficult to cultivate Nebbiolo and still produce quality wine with Barbera that could be consumed earlier while the Nebbiolo ages. Some characteristics of the variety are more consistent—namely its deep ruby color, pink rim, pronounced acidity and normally rather modest levels of tannins. These include Barber a Raspo, Barbera a Peduncolo, Barbera Amaro, Barbera Crna, Barbera Forte, Barbera Mercantile, Barbera Nera, Barbera Nostrana, Barbera Riccia, Barbera Rissa, Barbera Rosa, Barbera Vera, Barberone, Barbexinis, Besgano, Cosses Barbusen, Gaietto, Lombardesca, Perricone, Pignatello and Ughetta. [1], Century-old vines still exist in many regional vineyards and allow for the production of long-aging, robust red wines with intense fruit and enhanced tannic content. The added oxygen would also limit the reductive quality of Barbera and the occurrence of off-odors of hydrogen sulfide that would occur in some examples. Barbera described on De Long's Wine Variety Table. ISBN 978-0-19-870538-3, Robinson, Jancis; Julia Harding; José Vouillamoz (2012). It actually becomes more … Which Winegrape Varieties Are Grown Where? The best known appellation is the DOCG (Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita) Barbera d'Asti in the Piedmont region: the highest-quality Nizza DOCG wines are produced within a sub-zone of the Barbera d'Asti production area. Nearly half of all grape vine plantings in Piedmont are Barbera. バルベーラ ( 伊: Barbera) は イタリア の 赤ワイン 用ブドウ品種であり、2010年の時点でイタリアにおいて ( サンジョヴェーゼ と モンテプル … However, one ampelographer, Pierre Viala, speculates that Barbera originated in the Lombardy region of Oltrepò Pavese. Many producers employ the use of toasted oak barrels, which provides for increased complexity, aging potential, and hints of vanilla notes. This red wine has the same grape composition as the non-barrel aged type, Barbera d'Asti DOCG.As the name suggests, Barbera d'Asti Superiore DOCG is made from the Barbera grape variety (90-100%), … The coat of arms of Alba The Alba viticultural area covers both … Being one of the warmest areas in Asti, Nizza has the potential to produce the ripest Barbera with sugar levels to match some of the grape's high acidity. [13], Barbera is also a parent variety behind Ervi (crossed with Croatina), Incrocio Terezi I (with Cabernet franc), Nigra (with Merlot) and Prodest (also with Merlot). [1] The polysaccharides picked up from the oak, was found to increase the richness of Barbera. [3], Barbera is believed to have originated in the hills of Monferrato in central Piemonte, Italy, where it has been known from the thirteenth century. Barbera is right at home up in the northwest of Italy. The Barbera del Monferrato DOC – which tends to be somewhat sparkling (frizzante) – is seldom exported. [4] Documents from the cathedral of Casale Monferrato between 1246 and 1277 detail leasing agreements of vineyard lands planted with "de bonis vitibus barbexinis" or Barbera, as it was known then. Thus the best known Barbera is the DOCG of Barbera d'Asti. Vines, Grapes and Wines. Oxford University Press. 6 Michele Chiarlo Barbera d'Asti Le Orme Among top 7% … [5], Grape breeder Giovanni Dalmasso at the Instituto Sperimentale per la Viticoltura in Conegliano in the Veneto wine region used Barbera as one of the parent vines for many of his crosses. Pricing, promotions and availability … Barbera d’Alba is a DOC in the northwest region of Piedmont, Italy. ISBN 9780520272262, Robinson, Jancis (1986). [1] Barbera was an important grape in re-establishing the wine industry of the Apulia and Campania regions following World War II due to its high yields and easy adaption to mechanical harvesting. Along with Nebbiolo di Dronero (originally thought to be Nebbiolo but later discovered to be an old French wine grape known as Chatus), Dalmasso crossed Barbera to produce Albarossa, Cornarea, Nebbiera, San Michele and Soperga. Free shipping on orders of $35+ or same-day pick-up in store. Southeast of Piedmont, Barbera is found in Emilia-Romagna in the hills between Piacenza, Bologna and Parma. Mitchell Beazley. Wine Red Wine Barbera Barbera 1 - 24 of 37 results Sort Shopping Method Pick Up Pick Up Options Sacramento (Arden), CA All Stores Deliver to 95825 Ship to California Product Availability Include In … Elsewhere in Lombardy it is blended with Croatina and as part of a larger blend component in the red wines of Franciacorta. This wine has 714 mentions of red fruit notes (cherry, raspberry, red fruit). It likes the same conditions as Nebbiolo, but the latter is more profitable, fetching nearly twice, so is grown on the best sites. It is ruby red in color tending toward garnet with ageing. The … The Bennati family's wines, which express the unique soil and climate of the Traminha Valley … It has been grown for about 25 years in the Mudgee region of New South Wales, with later plantings in a number of wine regions, including the King Valley in Victoria as well as the McLaren Vale and the Adelaide Hills regions in South Australia. [13], Despite similarities in names Barbera has no close genetic relationship with the Campanian wine grape Barbera del Sannio or the Sardinian wine grape Barbera Sarda. Opici Homemade Style Barberone is a full flavored full bodied wine with a deep red color and the sweet aroma of dark fruit. ムンテニアのディアル・マーレ地区など。Caroline Gilby (2018). In the Piedmont region Barbera is widely grown in Asti and Monferrato regions. The fermentation is catalyzed by authoctone yeasts and the aging lasts about 24 months in wood barrels … It's a very versatile and adaptable grape variety that can result in wine of all kinds of styles, from light to intense, dry to sweet. Wine Finds Barbera Red Wine Grape Food Enology Gastronomy A weekly treasure trove of tastiness, featuring reviews from restaurant critic Ian Froeb and how-to videos by food writer Dan … [7] At its highpoint in the late 20th century, there were over 50,000 hectares (120,000 acres) planted but fallout from the "Methanol scandal" of the 1980s and the lack of a driving worldwide market caused those numbers to decline. [1], The use of oak for fermentation or maturation can have a pronounced influence of the flavor and profile of Barbera. [8], There are some small plantings in Israel.[1]. Wines with better balance between acid and fruit, often with the addition of oak and having a high alcohol content are more capable of cellaring; these wines often result from reduced-yield viticultural methods. Barbera d'Alba is a key DOC of Piedmont, in northwest Italy, famed for its tangy, cherry-like red wines made from Barbera grapes. A Global Empirical Picture. It is widely planted in the Central Valley, where it is a blend component in mass-produced jug wines. Native Wine Grapes of Italy. Maddeningly – but also luckily for red wine lovers – the puzzle of the quality pyramid becomes a downright riddle when you consider Barbera from Piemonte. Also called Barbara (like the woman's name), Barbera is one of the most widely grown red grape varieties in Italy, after other more celebrated varietals like Sangiovese, Merlot, and … [1] Plantings in the cooler regions of Napa and Sonoma have produced some successful examples. This wine has rich flavors of dark cherry, strawberry, plum and blackberry with hints of other tastes, like lavender, vanilla and anise. Barbera grapes are used both in blended wines and varietals the latter are becoming increasingly com… The wine is produced from 100% Barbera planted in and around the town of Alba, on the steep slopes of vineyards which … [1] The wines of Barbera d'Asti tend to be bright in color and elegant while Barbera d'Alba tend to have a deep color with more intense, powerful fruit. Barbera d'Asti is a particularly good ageing wine, with the potential to reward cellaring for a long time in some cases. Barbera grapes go as far back as the 13th century, which explains its matchless … Barbera is a red Italian wine that is the third most planted grape in the entire country, and it’s almost one thousand years older than Cabernet Sauvignon. In Piedmont, the vine was prized for its yields and ability to ripen two weeks earlier than Nebbiolo even on vineyard sites with less than ideal exposure. “Poison Plonk: A deadly wine scandal in Italy”, http://content.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,961046,00.html, “Nine to be tried for 1986 'Wine Massacre' deaths”, https://www.upi.com/Archives/1991/08/20/Nine-to-be-tried-for-1986-Wine-Massacre-deaths/8327682660800/, “Reconoscimento della denominazione di origine controllata del vino «Taurasi» ed approvazione del relativo disciplinare di produzione”, https://www.gazzettaufficiale.it/eli/gu/1970/05/25/129/sg/pdf, http://www.adelaide.edu.au/press/titles/winegrapes/, https://ja.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=バルベーラ&oldid=80036080, バルベーラ・ダスティ DOCG、ニッツァ DOCG、バルベーラ・デル・モンフェッラート・スペリオーレ DOCG. The Anello Barbera comes … Also, DNA analysis has shown that the white Piedmont variety Barbera bianca is a not a color mutation of Barbera but rather its own distinct variety. [3], Winemakers working with Barbera have a variety of ways to deal with the grape's high acidity and moderate astringency. [1], The Barbera vine is very vigorous and capable of producing high yields if not kept in check by pruning and other methods. Harvest for Barbera usually takes place in late September-early October, usually two weeks after Dolcetto has been picked. Barbera has long filled-in the low slopes and valleys of Northern Italy. Barbera grapes Barbera grapes are one of the many varieties of wine grapes grown in the Italian peninsula, known for their dark colour, thin tannin and acidic juices. John Gladstones, in his book Viticulture and Environment,[9] includes Barbera in maturity group 5, which means that it will ripen at about the same time as Shiraz and Merlot, and that it should theoretically find a successful home in many Australian wine regions. ISBN 978-0-19-860990-2, Robinson, Jancis, ed (2015). Barbera (sometimes spelled “barbara”) is a red wine grape variety widely planted in northern Italy. Barbera wine is a little-known red wine from Northern Italy. Lower yields and harvesting riper grapes with more fruit and sugar has been found to be a better balance for Barbera's high acidity.[1]. The Oxford Companion to Wine (4th ed.). Barbera is a dry, red wine typically marked by flavors of red cherry, raspberry or blackberry. This explains why relatively little Barbera is grown around Alba, where the wines are entitled to the appellation Barbera d'Alba. In recent times, winemakers have been experimenting with harvesting Barbera later at higher sugar levels to produce heavier, more fruit forward wines. Mount Broke Wines of Broke, is one of the few in New South Wales, Australia. South African producers have begun widespread plantings of the grape in the warm climate regions of Malmesbury, Wellington and Paarl. [2] When young, the wines offer a very intense aroma of fresh red cherries and blackberries. [13], Barbera is known under a variety of local synonyms through Italy and worldwide. In Sardinia, the grape is used around Cagliari in the wine known as Barbera Sarda and in Sicily, the grape is used in various blends under the names Perricone or Pignatello made near Agrigento. Today it is a permitted variety to be blended with Aglianico in the Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita (DOCG) wine of Taurasi though it is rarely used.[3]. Although Barbera plantings of over 12,500 hectares (31,000 acres) existed as of 2010 outside Italy, it is rarely found in Europe except for small plantings in Greece, Romania, and the coastal region of Primorska in Slovenia. It’s considered a lesser wine to Nebbiolo and, therefore, doesn’t earn the best grape-growing real estate (such as … It shows its best side in the … It ranks third in the most widely grown red grape variety in Italy, after … The grape rarely thrives in very alkaline or saline soils. Wine Growing Regions for Barbera The best known region for Barbera is the Denominzione di … [12], As with many grapes that are widely planted, there is a wide range of quality and variety of Barbera wines from medium bodied, fruity wines to more powerful, intense examples that need cellaring. Barbera most often drinks early, but some variations can be cellared. This red wine is from Piedmont. with the assistance of Nanda R. Aryal. ISBN 0-85533-581-5, Robinson, Jancis, ed (2006). Barbera is a red Italian wine grape variety that, as of 2000, was the third most-planted red grape variety in Italy (after Sangiovese and Montepulciano). Huis Ten Bosch original wine "Barbera (red)" The scent of small fruits such as cherries has a violet-like nuance. It produces good yields and is known for deep color, full body, low tannins and high levels of acidity. At the beginning of the twentieth century, it was the third most-planted red grape in … The influence of Italian immigrants has led to a scattering of Barbera plantings in South America, notably in Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay. It is known for low tannins and high acidity, which makes it taste both light-bodied and rich. [3] In Washington State, producers have been experimenting with plantings of Barbera in the Red Mountain, Walla Walla, and Columbia Valley AVAs. Wines made with older or more-neutral oak tend to retain more vibrant aromas and cherry notes. Barbera is a red Italian wine grape variety that, as of 2000, was the third most-planted red grape variety in Italy (after Sangiovese and Montepulciano). Barbera is a dark-skinned wine grape variety found in several Italian wine regions, including its native Piedmont, Emilia-Romagna, Puglia, Campania and even the island regions, Sicily and Sardinia. バルベーラ (伊: Barbera) はイタリアの赤ワイン用ブドウ品種であり、2010年の時点でイタリアにおいて (サンジョヴェーゼとモンテプルチャーノに次いで) 3番目に栽培面積の大きな黒ブドウである[1]。バルベーラは収量が高く、そのワインは深い色味とフルボディ、控えめなタンニン、強めの酸味で知られている[2]。, 若飲み用の微発泡タイプから長期熟成に耐えるしっかりとしたものまで、さまざまな赤ワインの生産が可能である。最も有名な原産地呼称はピエモンテ州のバルベーラ・ダスティ DOCG (Barbera d'Asti DOCG) であり、2014年に独立し品質の最も高いとされるニッツァ DOCG (Nizza DOCG) も、バルベーラ・ダスティの生産地域内にある下位区分地区である[3]。バルベーラのワインは、若いうちはみずみずしい赤いチェリーやブラックベリーのきわめて強いアロマを出す。最も軽口のタイプならばチェリーのほかにラズベリーやブルーベリーのようなアロマを帯びるが、完熟度のもっと高いブドウを使用した場合はブラックベリーやダークチェリーのようなアロマとなる。, バルベーラはイタリアのピエモンテ州中部、モンフェッラート地方の丘陵地帯に起源をもつと考えられ、同地ではこのブドウが13世紀より知られている[4]。カザーレ・モンフェッラートの大聖堂収蔵の記録には、1246年から1277年にかけてのブドウ畑の土地貸与契約が記されており、当時のバルベーラの呼び名であった「バルベクシヌスの良いブドウ樹 (de bonis vitibus barbexinis) 」 が植えられていたという記述がある[4]。しかしながら、ブドウ品種学者のひとりピエール・ヴィアラは、バルベーラの原産地はロンバルディア州のオルトレポー・パヴェーゼ (パヴィア県ポー川以南の地域) ではないかと推測している[4]。19世紀および20世紀には、イタリア移民(英語版)の波とともにバルベーラも南北アメリカ大陸に到来し、なかでもカリフォルニア州とアルゼンチンに定着することとなった[5]。 ピエモンテ州を揺るがした事件として、1986年に、バルベーラの複数のワイン生産者が自分たちのワインに違法にメタノールを添加するというスキャンダルが発生し[6][7]、19人が死亡したほか、さらに15人が失明した[8]。マスメディアによって悪評が広まった結果、バルベーラの販売と植栽はじりじりと減少していき、1990年代後半にはイタリアで2番目に栽培面積の大きい黒ブドウ品種の座をモンテプルチャーノに奪われることとなった[4]。, バルベーラの果房は長円錐形で岐肩があり、着粒密度が高い。果粒は中程度の大きさの長円形をしており、深い青色をしている。果皮は薄くて丈夫であり、蝋質の粉で覆われている[9]。バルベーラはピエモンテ州の主要な黒ブドウ品種のなかで最も果皮の色味が濃く、ネッビオーロの2倍近くのマルビンを含んでいる[10]。, バルベーラのブドウ樹は非常に樹勢があり、剪定などを行なって抑制しなければ高い収量を出すことができる[10][11]。収量が過剰だと果実の質が下がってバルベーラ本来の酸味と尖った感じが際立ってしまう[12][11]。ピエモンテ州では、日射量が理想よりも少ないブドウ畑ですら、収量が高く成熟するのがネッビオーロよりも2週間早いことで、このブドウは高く評価されている。そのおかげでアルバのようなピエモンテ州のワイン生産者は、最良の区画をもっと栽培の難しいネッビオーロに割り当てながらも、バルベーラで高品質のワインを生産することができるのである[13]。バルベーラの収穫は、通常9月後半から10月前半にかけてであり[10]、ドルチェット(英語版)の収穫から2週間後というのが通例である[14]。近年では、試験的にバルベーラの収穫を遅らせて糖度を上げ、より重口で果実味を前面に出したワインを作ろうとする生産者もいる。こうした生産者の場合、収穫年によってはバルベーラの収穫がネッビオーロよりも後になることさえある[4]。, バルベーラは多種多様なブドウ畑の土壌に適応できるが、肥沃度の低い石灰質土壌や粘土質のローム層において最もよく繁茂する傾向にある[15]。砂質土壌は樹勢と収量を抑えるのに役立つ。長い歴史をもつ多くのブドウ品種と同様、バルベーラにも突然変異体やクローンの発生がみられ、さまざまなクローンやバイオタイプ(同一の遺伝子型をもつ生物型)が確認されている(バルベーラ・グロッサ (Barbera Grossa) など)[10]。それぞれのクローンは果房の大きさや形状で識別でき、果房の小さなクローンのほうが高品質のワインを生み出す。近年、ブドウ栽培家たちはバルベーラの葉巻ウイルスに対する耐性を高めるために、クローンの選別に努めている[16]。, バルベーラを用いるワイン生産者たちは、このブドウのもつ強い酸味と中程度の渋味にかんして、さまざまな対策をとっている。もっとも一般的な方法は、酸味と渋味の弱い品種をブレンドすることで、最終的によりまろやかでバランスのとれたワインにするというものである[17][5]。, 1970年代にフランスのワイン醸造学者であるエミール・ペイノー(英語版)は、バルベーラを使用するワイン生産者に、オークのスパイス的なニュアンスと酸素化を加えてワインをまろやかにするため、オークの小樽を使って発酵と熟成を行なうことを勧めている[5]。添加された酸素は、バルベーラの還元しやすい性質を抑えて不快な硫化水素臭 (還元臭) の発生を防ぐともされている[5] 。オーク由来の多糖類はバルベーラの濃醇さを高めるということが判明している[18]。当時、ペイノーの提言は伝統志向のバルベーラワイン生産者から抵抗を受けたが、サンジョヴェーゼにオーク新樽での仕込みを導入した「スーペル・トスカーナ (スーパー・タスカン) 」の成功をうけて、多くの生産者が考えを改めた[5]。酸素化やスパイスのニュアンス以外にも、オークからは木材由来のタンニンがワインに移り、ブドウのフェノール化合物由来のタンニンほど強い渋味を増すことなく、ワインに骨格を与える[5]。この手法は、浸漬 (マセラシオン) 時間の短縮と合わせて、よりまろやかなワインの醸造に貢献した。収量を少なくしたり、もっと完熟させて果実味と糖度を高めたりすることも、バルベーラの強い酸味とのバランスを改善することが分かっている[5]。, イタリア北西部がバルベーラ栽培の本場であるが、ニューワールドの多くの地域ではイタリアからの移民によってバルベーラが伝播し、ブレンドワインに使用した際にこのブドウが出す「フレッシュな」酸味が評価されている。バルベーラはイタリア北西部、とくにモンフェッラートと、北西部ほどではないが以南の地域でも見受けられる。2010年の時点で、ピエモンテ州で植栽されているブドウ樹のうち、30%がバルベーラであった[19]。バルベーラネッビオーロと同じような環境を好むが、ネッビオーロのほうが収益性が高い (2倍近く) ため[16]、最良の区画では後者が栽培されている[5]。バルベーラのほうが成熟期が早いため、ネッビオーロよりも標高が低く気温も低めの斜面など、2番手以降の区画で栽培される。バルベーラ・ダルバ DOC (Barbera d'Alba DOC) の認定地域であるアルバの一帯においてバルベーラの栽培が比較的少ないのは、こうした事情による[12]。したがって、最も有名なバルベーラのワインは、バルベーラ・ダスティ DOCG (Barbera d'Asti DOCG) のものとなる。バルベーラ・デル・モンフェッラート DOC (Barbera del Monferrato DOC) -- 微発泡のスパークリングワイン (フリッツァンテ) になることが多い -- は、ほとんど輸出されることがない。, 2010年時点でバルベーラの国内栽培面積は20,524ヘクタール (50,720エーカー) あり、イタリアでは6番目に栽培面積の広いブドウ品種であった (黒ブドウ品種としては3番目) [1]。20世紀後半の最盛期には、栽培面積は50,000ヘクタール (120,000エーカー) を上回っていたが、1980年代の「メタノール・スキャンダル」の結果として、また輸出の原動力となる国際市場をもたなかったために、この数字は下降していった[14][12]。国内栽培面積の60%以上を占めるピエモンテ州[12]では、バルベーラはアスティおよびモンフェッラートで広く栽培されている。キャンティ・クラッシコのような公式に定められた「クラッシコ」の該当地区は存在しないものの、アスティ県のニッツァ・モンフェッラート、ヴィンキオ、カステルヌオーヴォ・カルチェア、アリアーノ・テルメ、ベルヴェリオ、ロッケッタ・ターナロといった町を取り巻く一帯が、地元住民のあいだではピエモンテ州におけるバルベーラの「中心地」だと見なされている[5]。2001年、ニッツァはバルベーラ・ダスティ DOC内の下位区分地区として正式に認定され、2014年に独自のD.O.C.G.認定地域として認められた[3]。アスティ県内で最も温暖な地区であるニッツァは、このブドウの強い酸味に釣り合うくらいの糖度をもった完熟度の最も高いバルベーラを生み出せるだけの力がある[5]。バルベーラ・ダスティのワインは色味が明るくエレガントになる傾向があるのに対し、バルベーラ・ダルバはもっと色味が深く、濃厚で力強い果実味を帯びやすい[20]。アルバの一帯では、ブドウ畑の最良の区画はネッビオーロに供され、バルベーラは下の等級の区画に回されるため、バルベーラ・ダルバ DOCのラベル表記をもつワインは質・量ともに限られてしまう[12]。バルベーラ・デル・モンフェッラート DOCは、フレイザ(英語版)、グリニョリーノ(英語版)、ドルチェットを最大15%ブレンドさせたバルベーラのワインであり、微発泡であることもある[21]。, ピエモンテ州以外でもバルベーラはイタリア全土でみられ、大量生産のテーブルワインにブレンドされることも多い[5]。ロンバルディア州では、オルトレポー・パヴェーゼ DOC (Oltrepò Pavese DOC) にバルベーラのセパージュワイン (バルベーラの使用率85%以上) があり、熟成期間24ヶ月以上のリゼルヴァから微発泡のフリッツァンテまで幅広い種類をもつ。また通常のロッソ (赤) およびロザート (ロゼ) にも、バルベーラ種が25-65%使用されている (他にブレンドされているのはクロアティーナ(英語版)、ウーヴァ・ラーラ(英語版)、ウゲッタ (ヴェスポリーナ(英語版)) 、ピノ・ネロ (ピノ・ノワール) など) [22]。同じくオルトレポー・パヴェーゼの地域内にある甘口ワインのサングエ・ディ・ジューダ DOC (Sangun di Giuda DOC) も、同じような比率でバルベーラが使用されている[23]。エミリア=ロマーニャ州では、バルベーラはピアチェンツァ、パルマ、ボローニャ周辺の丘陵地にみられる。ピアチェンツァ周辺の一帯に位置するグットゥルニオ DOC (Gutturnio DOC) の赤ワインのように、バルベーラはもっとまろやかなクロアティーナとブレンドされることが多い[5]。, 第二次世界大戦後、プッリャ州およびカンパーニャ州のワイン産業が復興するうえで、収量が高く機械での収穫に適応しやすいバルベーラは重要な役割を果たした[16][24]。アリアニコを主体とするタウラージ (Taurasi) が1970年にD.O.C.に認定された際には、バルベーラを30%までブレンドすることが認められていた[25][26]。1993年にD.O.C.G.に昇格して規定に品種名が明記されなくなった後も、「その他の地元産黒ブドウ品種」としてサンジョヴェーゼ、ピエディロッソ(英語版)と並んで最大15%までの使用が認められている (ただし実際に使用されることはほとんどない) [27]。, 2010年時点でイタリア以外の地域におけるバルベーラの栽培面積は3,500ヘクタールを超えている[28]ものの、ヨーロッパでは、スロベニアのアドリア海沿岸部プリモルスカ地方[5]やクロアチア[10]、ギリシャ[29]、ルーマニアでわずかに植栽されている[30]のを除き、バルベーラを見かけることはほとんどない[2]。, イタリア移民の影響により、バルベーラの植栽は南米の各地、とくにアルゼンチン、ブラジル、ウルグアイに散見される[31]。バルベーラはアルゼンチンで広く栽培されており、栽培面積は2010年時点で546ヘクタールあった[28]。栽培面積の大部分はメンドーサ州およびサン・ファン州が占め、ピエモンテ州のもののようなセパージュワインを作る生産者も存在する (ノートンなど)[13]。, オーストラリアには1960年代にカリフォルニア大学デイヴィス校からバルベーラの挿木が輸入され、2015年時点での国内栽培総面積は110ヘクタールであった[32]。ニューサウスウェールズ州のマジーでの栽培の歴史は長く、1974年設立のワイナリーであるモントローズのワイン醸造家、カルロ・コリーノが栽培を開始したイタリア系ブドウ品種のなかにバルベーラが含まれていた[33]。カルロ・コリーノやトマス・フィアスキといったイタリア人醸造家が先駆者となり、イタリア系品種を栽培するワイナリーが数多く生まれた(ディ・ルッソ・ワインズ、ファースト・リッジ・エステート、スキムストーンなど)[33]。現在では数多くのワイン生産地域でバルベーラが植栽されている。破砕量の割合ではリヴァリーナが大半 (69%) を占め、ビクトリア州のキング・ヴァレー (9%) 、サウスオーストラリア州のマクラーレン・ヴェール (4%) 、アデレード・ヒルズ (3%) 、ニューサウスウェールズ州のハンター・ヴァレー (3%) が続く[32]。バルベーラの果実の成熟期はシラーズおよびメルローとほぼ同じで、カベルネ・ソーヴィニヨンやネッビオーロよりやや早い時期であることから、理論的にはオーストラリアのワイン生産地域の多くがバルベーラの栽培に適していることになるが、理想的なテロワールの特定には至っていない[34]。, 南アフリカ共和国の生産者たちは、マームズベリやウェリントン、パールといった温暖な気候の地域でバルベーラの栽培を始めている[5]。, アメリカ合衆国におけるバルベーラの栽培面積は2010年時点で2,798ヘクタールあり[28]、その大半はカリフォルニア州が占めている[29]。バルベーラは同州に導入されて最も成功したピエモンテのブドウ品種のひとつであり、1880年代にクパティーノで栽培されたのが最初である[10]。バルベーラはセントラル・ヴァレーで広く栽培されており[5]、大量生産のジャグワイン(英語版) (バルクワインの一種) のブレンド用品種となっている[16]。20世紀末以降、イタリアのブドウ品種のワインがブームになってから、カリフォルニア州のワイン生産者にもバルベーラで高品質のセパージュワインを生産しようとする者が増えた[29]。比較的冷涼なワイン生産地域であるナパやソノマでは成功例もみられる[16]ほか、栽培の歴史の長いセントラル・ヴァレーのシエラ・フットヒルズ AVAでも複数の生産者が高い評価を得ている (ヨルバやジェフ・ランクウィストなど) [29]。ワシントン州では、生産者たちがバルベーラの試験的栽培をレッドマウンテン AVAやワラワラ AVA、コロンビア・ヴァレー AVAで行なっており、これらの若いブドウ樹から作られたワインは、複雑さや熟成によって引き出される力においては限られるが、イチゴのような香りのする果実味の強いワインになる[35]。これら以外にも、バルベーラの栽培はアリゾナ州、ニューメキシコ州、オレゴン州、テキサス州にみられる[10]。, 広く栽培されている多くのブドウ品種と同様にバルベーラの場合も、若飲み用の軽口のワインから、長期熟成を要するようなもっと力強くがっしりとしたワインまで、幅広い品質や種類のものが存在する[11]。バルベーラのどのタイプのワインにもみられるような特徴はあり、これには深いルビー色、顕著な酸味、通常やや控えめなタンニンなどが当てはまる[11]。また、ピエモンテ州のワインには華やかなチェリーの芳香のするものもある[12]。その酸味によってバルベーラは、通常酸味の強化が必要とされるより高温な気候の地域(オーストラリア、アルゼンチン、カリフォルニアなど)において、重宝される栽培品種となっている[14]。また、その色味によってもバルベーラはブレンド用の品種として重宝されており、かつてバローロおよびバルバレスコでは、本来色味の明るいネッビオーロ種のワインに色味を付加する目的でバルベーラが用いられていた[11][36]。, 発酵や熟成の過程におけるオーク樽の使用は、バルベーラの風味や骨格に際立った影響を与えることがある[5]。樽のかかったバルベーラは、プラムやスパイスのような特徴が増し、より濃醇でまろやかなワインになる傾向がある。年月を経て木質の弱まったオーク樽を用いて作ったワインは、生き生きとしたアロマやチェリーのような特徴をより強く残しやすい。バルベーラの酸味に釣り合うよう糖度を上げるため、収穫時期を遅らせる生産者もいるが、果実が熟れすぎるとレーズンのような風味になることもある[20]。, ヴェネト州コネリアーノにあるブドウ栽培試験所のブドウ樹育種家ジョヴァンニ・ダルマッソは、バルベーラを親種の片方にしてさまざまな交配種を開発した。ダルマッソは、 (当初ネッビオーロと考えられていたがのちにフランスに古くからあるワイン用ブドウ品種シャチュー(英語版) (Chatus) と判明した) ネッビオーロ・ディ・ドロネーロ (Nebbiolo di Dronero) とバルベーラを掛け合わせ、アルバロッサ (Albarossa) 、コルナレア (Cornarea) 、ネッビエラ (Nebbiera) 、サン・ミケーレ (San Michele) 、ソペルガ (Soperga) などの品種を生み出した[37]。, バルベーラが親種となっているブドウ品種としては、エルヴィ (Ervi) (クロアティーナとの交配種) [38]、インクローチョ・テルツィ 1 (Incrocio Terzi 1) (カベルネ・フランとの交配種) [39]、ニグラ (Nigra) (メルローとの交配種) [40]、プロデスト (Prodest) (同じくメルローとの交配種) [41]などもある。, 名前は似ているが、バルベーラはカンパーニャ州のワイン用ブドウ品種バルベーラ・デル・サンニオ(英語版) (Barbera del Sannio) ともサルデーニャ州のワイン用葡萄品種バルベーラ・サルダ(英語版) (Barbera Sarda) とも遺伝子上の類縁関係にはない[42]。またDNA型鑑定の結果、ピエモンテ州のブドウ品種バルベーラ・ビアンカ(英語版) (Barbera bianca) も、バルベーラの色素変異体ではなくまったく別の品種であることが判明している[29]。ユリウス・クーン研究所のブドウ国際品種目録 (VIVC) はバルベーラ・デル・サンニオを独立した品種として登録している[43]一方、2019年時点でイタリア政府の農業省は別個の品種として認定しておらず、一部のD.O.C.やI.G.T.の規定では「バルベーラ」として扱い続けている (サンニオ DOCなど) [44]。, シチリアで栽培されている黒ブドウ品種のペッリコーネ (Perricone) (またはピニャテッロ (Pignatello) ) は、バルベーラではないかと推測されていたことがある[5]が、現在では国内外においても別品種として登録されている[45][46]。, 近年の研究においてバルベーラがフランスおよびスペインのブドウ品種であるムールヴェードルと類縁関係にある可能性が指摘された[18]が、DNA型のデータはこの仮説を否定している[12]。, バルベーラはイタリアおよび世界各地においてさまざまな現地名で知られている。以下に挙げるのはその一部である: バルベル・ア・ラスポ・ロッソ (Barber a Raspo) 、バルベーラ・ア・ペドゥンコロ (Barbera a Peduncolo) 、バルベーラ・アマーロ (Barbera Amaro) 、バルベラ・ツルナ (Barbera Crna, クロアチア) 、バルベーラ・フォルテ (Barbera Forte) 、バルベーラ・ア・メルカンティーレ (Barbera Mercantile) 、バルベーラ・ネーラ (Barbera Nera) 、バルベーラ・ノストラーナ (Barbera Nostrana) 、バルベーラ・リッチア (Barbera Riccia) 、バルベーラ・リッサ (Barbera Rissa) 、バルベーラ・ローザ (Barbera Rosa) 、バルベーラ・ヴェーラ (Barbera Vera) 、バルベローネ (Barberone) 、 バルベクシヌス (Barbexinus) 、ベザーニョ (Besagno) 、コス・バルブサン (Cosses Barbusen) 、ガイエット (Gaietto) 、ロンバルデスカ (Lombardesca) 、ウゲッタ (Ughetta) など[47][48]。, 林茂『最新 基本イタリアワイン』CCCメディアハウス、2018年、増補改訂第4版。ISBN 978-4-484-17232-3。, Anderson, Kym (2013). 本段落の記述では、ピエモンテ州の主要品種 ( すなわち本記事の対象となっている ) バルベーラと別品種のバルベーラ・デル・サンニオは区別されていない ( higher sugar levels to produce heavier, fruit! 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Both light-bodied and rich Monferrato regions ’ Alba is a DOC in the Central Valley, where it is as... 本段落の記述では、ピエモンテ州の主要品種 ( すなわち本記事の対象となっている ) バルベーラと別品種のバルベーラ・デル・サンニオは区別されていない ( wine grape, after Sangiovese and Montepulciano, the fashion Italian... Jug wines recognized as a sub-region within the greater Barbera d'Asti is known for Flavors and aromas of fresh cherries... Acidity and moderate astringency 9780520272262, Robinson, Jancis ( 1986 ) and Parma ] When young, the of. One of the grape and accentuate Barbera 's natural acidity and sharpness, more fruit forward.. The oak, was found to increase the richness of Barbera for fermentation maturation... Component in the Central Valley, where the wines are entitled to the appellation d'Alba.

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