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M. A. Ngwenya, A. Koopman, and R. Williams. [72] assessed antioxidant scavenging capacity of G. perpensa acetone, crude, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, hexane, methanol, and water extracts using 2,2-di (4-tert-octylphenyl)-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2′-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic as substrate. The high COX-2 inhibitory activity of G. perpensa makes the species a better product when treating because the COX-2 enzyme is specific in treating inflamed tissue, resulting in less gastric irritation as compared to COX-1 inhibitors and hence decreased risk of gastric ulceration [60]. McGaw et al. The phytochemical screening of methanolic extract of G. perpensa rhizomes carried out by Simelane et al. Results obtained by Buwa and Van Staden [32] revealed that the aqueous and ethyl acetate extracts of G. perpensa had weak to moderate inhibitory activity with MIC values of 25 and 6.25 mg/ml, respectively. Future research should also evaluate the combinational, additive, and synergetic effects associated with complex herbal concoctions that have G. perpensa as an ingredient. Roots, stalks, and stems edible and used for making beer, Leaves burnt and crushed and smoked, root decoction taken orally, Induce or augment labour and as antenatal medication, Leaves used as poultices, rhizome decoction applied as a dressing, B. Bergman, C. Johansson, and E. Söderbäck, “Tansley Review No. [2] and Soltis et al. Lim, and E.-H. Park, “Anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic and anti-nociceptive activities of 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde,”, R. C. Allen, “Phagocytic leukocyte oxygenation activities and chemiluminescence: a kinetic approach to analysis,”, S. Kumar and A. K. Pandey, “Chemistry and biological activities of flavonoids: an overview,”, M. T. H. Khan, I. Lampronti, D. Martello et al., “Identification of pyrogallol as an antiproliferative compound present in extracts from the medicinal plant, S. Koduru, D. S. Grierson, and A. J. Afolayan, “Ethnobotanical information of medicinal plants used for treatment of cancer in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa,”, P. N. Solis, C. W. Wright, M. M. Anderson, M. P. Gupta, and J. D. Phillipson, “A microwell cytotoxicity assay using, M. Mwale and P. J. Masika, “Toxicity evaluation of the aqueous leaf extract of Gunnera perpensa L. (Gunneraceae),”, K. B. Brookes and A. N. Smith, “Cytotoxicity of pregnancy-related traditional medicines,”, M. F. Doyle and R. Scogin, “A comparative phytochemical profile of the Gunneraceae,”, A. M. Manyatsi, N. Mhazo, S. Msibi, and M. T. Masarirambi, “Utilisation of wetland plant resources for livelihood in Swaziland: the case of Lobamba Lomdzala area,”, E. Vhurumuku, “Knowledge, use and attitudes towards medicinal plants of pre-service teachers at a South African university,”, O. O. G. Amusan, “Some ethnoremedies used for HIV/AIDs and related diseases in Swaziland,”, O. O. G. Amusan, N. A. Sukati, and M. S. Shongwe, “Some phytomedicines from Shiselweni region of Swaziland,”. [27] obtained highest sensitivity from the leaf extracts followed by the stems, with the least activity noted for the root extracts. Used to improve sexuality, assist with thrush, bad odour that women experience today, which may cause your partner to avoid intiamcy with you. Some of the pharmacological activities of G. perpensa reported in literature correlate with some of its ethnomedicinal uses as a single agent or as part of a complex herbal decoction or infusion mixed with other plant species as summarized in Tables 1 and 2. [27] obtained highest sensitivity from the leaf extracts followed by the stems, with the least activity noted for the root extracts. The veins are very noticeable on the lower surface of the leaf, radiating from the point where the petiole joins the leaf, referred to as palmate radiation [1, 45]. Neither rat mortality nor changes in behaviour were noted for acute test and rat mortality for 400 mg/kg dose of subacute and 200 mg/kg of chronic test was 20% [81]. Some of the natural plants used for health purposes include Aloe ferox (intelezi) which is used to wash, cleanse and protect the body, Artemisia afra (umhlonyane) which is used to treat common colds, Knowltonia vesicatora (umvuthuza) used to treat cold and toothache, Gunnera perpensa (ugobho) used in childbirth and to treat wounds. Figure 1 shows structures of some of the secondary metabolites isolated from the leaves, rhizomes, roots, and stems of G. perpensa. Z-venusol 5 showed a statistically significant, concentration dependent, apoptotic inhibitory effect on proliferation of MCF-7 cells, with an IC50 of 53.7 μg/ml after 72-hour exposure and the highest concentration (250 μg/ml) used resulted in 69% inhibition [67]. Root decoction of G. perpensa is used by Zulu traditional healers in South Africa to stimulate milk production [35]. Simelane et al. Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. A major component of traditional medicine is herbal medicine, which is the use of natural plant substances to treat or prevent illness. Similarly, in Swaziland, the roots, stalks, and stems are edible and also used as ingredients of traditional beer [42]. Ugobho or Gunnera perpensa is used to tone patients and help them pull themselves together. [35] estimated the acetylcholinesterase activity of an aqueous extract of Gunnera perpensa rhizome using acetylthiocholine iodide and found the extract to inhibit 23% of AChE activity. [66], both aqueous and methanolic extracts of G. perpensa demonstrated analgesic activities which were not dose dependent. Alfred Maroyi, "From Traditional Usage to Pharmacological Evidence: Systematic Review of Gunnera perpensa L.", Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. There is need to assess if G. perpensa has other chemical compounds such as anthocyanins, caffeic acid, ellagitannin, and quercetin that have been isolated from other Gunnera species and related genera [83]. ... ugobho 38 ukuphalaza 33 ulcers 24, 44, 63, 96 Ulrich Feiter 68, 69 umathunga 90 umckaloabo 68, 69 umhlahlampetu 70 umhlonyane 56 umkakase 60 umlungumabele 114 umnga 36 [54] revealed the presence of steroids, saponins, and glycosides in addition to secondary compounds shown in Figure 1. In an earlier study, McGaw et al. Future research should focus on the mechanisms of action of the isolated compounds, their efficacy, toxicity, and clinical relevance. Future research should combine the pharmacological effects, mechanisms of action, and clinical applications in assessing the efficacy of G. perpensa compounds and/or their extracts. Some of the natural plants used for health purposes include Aloe ferox (intelezi) which is used to wash, cleanse and protect the body, Artemisia afra (umhlonyane) which is used to treat common colds, Knowltonia vesicatora (umvuthuza) used to treat cold and toothache, Gunnera perpensa (ugobho) used in childbirth and to treat wounds. [55], the use of G. perpensa roots as herbal medicine will not cause heavy metal toxicity but can be of good use to the users in cases of micronutrient deficiency. There was insignificant inhibition (of 20%) of HMECs proliferation which was observed when concentration of Z-venusol 5 was increased beyond 16.6 μg/ml and the highest concentration used resulted in only 27% inhibition of proliferation of HMECs [67]. A. Lawal, T. G. Djarova, C. T. Musabayane, M. Singh, and A. R. Opoku, “Lactogenic activity of rats stimulated by, D. S. Grierson and A. J. Afolayan, “An ethnobotanical study of plants used for the treatment of wounds in the Eastern Cape, South Africa,”, M. Sanhokwe, J. Mupangwa, P. J. Masika, V. Maphosa, and V. Muchenje, “Medicinal plants used to control internal and external parasites in goats,”, A. P. Dold and M. L. Cocks, “Traditional veterinary medicine in the Alice district of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa,”, R. B. Bhat, “Medicinal plants and traditional practices of Xhosa people in the Transkei region of Eastern Cape, South Africa,”. Indlebeyemvu: Leaves: Tea from dried leaves applied to circumcision wounds H. aureonitens Sch.Bip. The fact that it has cleansing qualities but does not irritate mucous membranes makes it especially useful for a hardened uterus. By contrast, Z-venusol 5 did not trigger the direct contractile response but induced the state of continuous contractility once the organ bath was flushed [59]. [65] evaluated the antioxidant activity of G. perpensa via oxidant generation by N-formyl-methionyl-leucylphenylalanine- (FMLP-) stimulated neutrophils measured using lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence as described by Allen [75]. [60] investigated the mutagenic activity of aqueous rhizome extract of G. perpensa using the Salmonella microsome assay based on the plate-incorporation procedure with Salmonella typhimurium tester strain TA98, with and without metabolic activation. Isihlambezo is a herbal decoction used by many pregnant women in South Africa as a pregnancy tonic to hasten childbirth and expel placenta. Gunnera perpensa is widely known for its high medicinal importance in several traditional medicine systems in southern Africa which resulted in the creation of some formulas or prescriptions (Table 1). Something went wrong, please try again later. [59] isolated trimethyl ether of ellagic acid glucoside 3, Z-venusol, 7,8-dihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)-3-[(Z)-(4-hydroxyphenyl)methylidene]tetrahydro-4aH-pyrano[2,3-b][1,4]dioxin-2-one 5, lactic acid 11, succinic acid 12, and pyrogallol 14, from the aqueous extract of the dry rhizomes of G. perpensa. The Zulu name ugobho refers to its use; gobhoza in Zulu means the flowing of fluids, in particular the flowing of water. Name. The review is also aimed at assessing whether there is correlation between the ethnomedicinal uses of G. perpensa with its chemical and bioactive properties. Diabetes mellitus (DM) belongs to the group of five leading important diseases causing death globally and remains a major health problem in Africa. Are there pills that you can take to clean your womb, or any other method, or do you only have to go for a womb scrub. © 2020 (1.1.20344.4) 24.com. Among the 27 species used in Ghana, for example, high impact harvesting of stem wood or root material from only seven species accounted for 88% of chewing sticks used. Which hospital areas are most likely to be contaminated by Covid-19? This product will ensure good results and confidence in … Table 2 shows how G. perpensa is used alone in monotherapeutic applications. Several classes of phytochemicals including alkaloids, benzoquinones, ellagic acids, flavonoids, phenols, proanthocyanidins, tannins, and minerals have been isolated from G. perpensa. A. Lawal, T. G. Djarova, and A. R. Opoku, “, F. Mtunzi, E. Muleya, J. Modise, A. Sipamla, and E. Dikio, “Heavy metals content of some medicinal plants from Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa,”. It is highly esteemed as a blood detoxifier, a diuretic, and a topical remedy for maladies of the skin, including psoriasis and acne. B. E. Van Wyk, B. 2003). Ndhlala et al. Buwa and Van Staden [32] evaluated the antifungal activity of aqueous, ethanolic, and ethyl acetate root extracts of G. perpensa against Candida albicans. Isihlambezo decoctions are also administered to animals by the Zulu and southern Sotho people in South Africa to assist in the expulsion of the placenta [15, 16, 27]. Propolis is also an excellent wound healer. According to Nkomo et al. Innately spiritual, the thousands of lineages of African people across thousands of years have all used plant medicines for healing, always with the blessing of their ancestors. A number of factors such as poverty, poor eating habit, and hormonal imbalance are responsible for the occurrence of the disease. [54] evaluated the toxicity of G. perpensa rhizome methanol extract using the brine shrimp lethality test. Harvesting of G. perpensa rhizomes and roots means that the whole plant is removed resulting in reductions in the population size of the species. Van Oudtshoorn, and N. Gericke. A. R. Ndhlala, J. F. Finnie, and J. All the extracts were lethal to the brine shrimp larvae at a concentration of 5 mg/ml. Victor and Keith [51] evaluated in vitro anthelmintic efficacy of G. perpensa aqueous leaf extract against Heterakis gallinarum. Urton, and Triumfetta rhomboidea Jacq. E. Meyer (0.3 mg/ml), and unspecified quantities of Vitamin E using human breast (MCF-7) cancer cells and human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs) with cisplatin and camptothecin drugs as positive controls. The reported lactogenic properties of G. perpensa corroborate the traditional use of the species to stimulate milk production in KwaZulu Natal province, South Africa [35]. The margins of the leaves are irregularly toothed. Ozturk Sarikaya [68] evaluated the compound pyrogallol 14 as a potential inhibitor for AChE enzyme and the results showed that the compound exhibited potent AChE enzyme inhibitory activity with IC50 and inhibitory constant (Ki) values 10.2 and 8.6 μM, respectively. Such research work should be extended to focus on aspects of quality control to ensure safety and the fact that potentially toxic components of G. perpensa in herbal decoctions and infusions are kept below tolerance levels. The bioactive properties that have been reported so far based on G. perpensa crude extracts include acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme inhibition [35, 60], anthelmintic [61, 62], antibacterial [27, 32, 58, 60, 63–65], antifungal [32, 58, 60, 63], antinociceptive [66], anti-inflammatory [58, 60, 65, 66], antioxidant [54, 65], antitumour [67], lactogenic [35], and uterotonic [21, 59] properties. These documented antifungal properties of G. perpensa justify its use as herbal medicine against microbial infections. Research by Moore et al. Nkomo et al. The flowers are numerous, small and not very noticeable, pinkish, reddish brown, and borne on a long slender spike, which is taller than the leaves. Aqueous, ethanolic, and ethyl acetate extracts of G. perpensa roots were screened for antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus by Buwa and Van Staden [32]. Female lactating rats that received oral doses of the extract of G. perpensa significantly produced more milk than controls. Biological and pharmacological studies of various extracts and isolated compounds from G. perpensa confirmed acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme inhibition, anthelmintic, antibacterial, antifungal, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antitumour, lactogenic, and uterotonic activities. Gunnera perpensa exhibited some soya bean 15-LOX inhibitory activity with EC50 value of 81.18 μg/ml [72]. The resource-limited farmers in the Eastern Cape province, South Africa, use G. perpensa as an alternative control of gastrointestinal parasites in village chickens [31, 37, 38]. Ugobho: Leaves: Applied as a dressing for wounds: 3. [27] quantified antifungal activity of crude extracts of stems, roots, and leaves of G. perpensa as well as 2-methyl-6-(-3-methyl-2-butenyl)benzo-1,4-quinone 7, 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-5-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)benzo-1,4-quinone 8, and 6-hydroxy-8-methyl-2,2-dimethyl-2H-benzopyran 9 against Candida albicans using amphotericin B as control. The formalin test induced a biphasic response in all animals, and during the inflammatory phase both the aqueous and methanolic extracts significantly reduced pain. [67] evaluated the in vitro antitumour effects of Z-venusol 5 isolated from the roots of G. perpensa as well as Re-Joovena™, a commercial concoction containing G. perpensa (0.3 mg/ml), Ocotea bullata (Burch.) [54] also evaluated the antioxidant activity of G. perpensa rhizome and found methanol extracts to exhibit strong scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate (ABTS) but showed poor (<50%) radical scavenging of nitric oxide, superoxide, and hydroxyl radicals. Genus Gunnera includes 30–40 herbaceous species, mostly distributed in the southern hemisphere [4]. Further investigations should focus on the bioactive properties of these isolated compounds and their mechanisms of action aimed at illustrating the correlation between ethnomedicinal uses and pharmacological activities of various extracts of the species. The womb looks after itself. The observed population decline of G. perpensa in Lesotho and South Africa [49, 53] is due to overexploitation as herbal medicine, destruction of its habitat, medicinal plant trade, and popularity of the species in the medicinal (muthi) markets. Van Staden, “Antibacterial, anthelmintic and anti-amoebic activity in South African medicinal plants,”, V. Steenkamp, E. Mathivha, M. C. Gouws, and C. E. J. van Rensburg, “Studies on antibacterial, antioxidant and fibroblast growth stimulation of wound healing remedies from South Africa,”, M. Nkomo, B. N. Nkeh-Chungag, L. Kambizi, E. J. Ndebia, and J. E. Iputo, “Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties of gunnera perpensa (gunneraceae),”, L. J. Mathibe, J. Botha, and S. Naidoo, “Z-venusol, from, S. B. Ozturk Sarikaya, “Acethylcholinesterase inhibitory potential and antioxidant properties of pyrogallol,”. B. Cunningham, T. L. Kaido, D. J. H. Veale, I. Havlik, and D. B. K. Rama, “Preliminary screening of plants used in South Africa as traditional herbal remedies during pregnancy and labour,”. 2016, Article ID 1720123, 14 pages, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/1720123, 1Department of Botany, University of Fort Hare, Private Bag X1314, Alice 5700, South Africa. Muleya et al. It poses a major health challenge in Africa continent today and the prevalence continues to increase at an alarming rate. Imbiza ephuzwato is a herbal tonic made from a mixture of roots, bulbs, rhizomes, and leaves of 21 different medicinal plant species used as a multipurpose remedy (Table 1). Khan et al. Imbola: EC, KZN: Bulb McGaw et al. According to Qiu et al. Methanol fraction was the most active with an EC50 value of 80 μg/ml against Pseudomonas aeruginosa [72]. [77] evaluated the in vitro antiproliferative activity of pyrogallol 14 towards human tumour cell lines, including human erythromyeloid K562, B-lymphoid Raji, T-lymphoid Jurkat, and erythroleukemic HEL cell lines. Another compound, 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-5-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)benzo-1,4-quinone 8, showed no activity, while 6-hydroxy-8-methyl-2,2-dimethyl-2H-benzopyran 9 showed very weak activity for most bacterial species with notable activity against Bacillus cereus and Cryptococcus neoformans with MIC values of 75 µg/ml [27]. Decoction prepared from it is also used to remove excess fluid from the body and to remove placenta after birth. These findings corroborate reports that the leaves of G. perpensa which are used by the rural people of the Eastern Cape province, South Africa, in wound dressing [36] could be effective against bacterial infections. The extracts of G. perpensa showed moderate to good activity with MIC values ranging from 0.195 to 12.5 mg/mL. Muleya et al. It is a substance produced by bees that is commonly used to provide protection from viruses, bacteria and fungi. Like most medicinal plants in southern Africa, G. perpensa is collected from the wild. Gunnera perpensa is an ingredient in many herbal concoctions and prescriptions which have been used to induce or augment labour, postnatal medication, to treat parasitic diseases, urinary complaints, kidney problems, general body pains, sexually transmitted infections, and many other diseases. Copyright © 2016 Alfred Maroyi. These findings support the use of G. perpensa against bacterial infections, for example, its traditional use against boils [43], endometrtitis [27], gonorrhoea [32], rheumatic fever [22, 24], syphilis [32], ulcers [73], and urinary tract infections [32]. Ethnobotanical survey of traditional healers around Kwa-Zulu Natal revealed Gunnera perpensa L (uGobho Zulu name) to be one of the many plants used to stimulate lactogenic activity. Hyacinthaceae: Eucomis bicolor Baker. The questionnaire was administered by two ofthe authors (C.L.M. In the same study by McGaw et al. The results revealed that all the extracts were nonmutagenic towards the Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 for the assay with and without S9 metabolic activation. The authors estimated the concentrations of G. perpensa in the bloodstream to be 4.6 μg/ml, and based on this dilution that takes place in the bloodstream, the extract of this species is regarded as nontoxic. Methanol fraction was the most active with an EC Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans of 160 μg/ml against Candida albicans [72]. J. J. M. van der Merwe, Rhoicissus tridentata subsp. All the leaves arise from a central tuft near the top of the apex, just above the soil level. These findings suggest that Z-venusol 5 is cytotoxic to human breast tumour cells in vitro, and cell death follows an apoptotic pathway. In this study, inhibition of cell proliferation was consistently observed with IC50 values of pyrogallol 14 on K562, Jurkat, HEL, and Raji cell lines within the range of 10–30 µM [77]. Gunnera perpensa can therefore be used for treating inflammation related conditions including abdominal pain, swelling of the body, menstrual pains, kidney inflammation and problems, sores, general body pain, and wounds (see Tables 1 and 2). Scientific studies on G. perpensa indicate that it has a wide range of pharmacological activities including acetylcholinesterase, anthelmintic, antibacterial, antifungal, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antitumour, lactogenic, and uterotonic. In addition to this, pyrogallol 14 was effective of all the scavenging and reducing power results [68]. According to Brookes and Dutton [57], 3,3′,4′-tri-O-methyl ellagic acid lactone 1 which was isolated from Combretum kraussii Hochst. Molares and Ladio [13] also evaluated antibacterial activity of G. perpensa rhizomes against the Gram-positive bacteria Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus and the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. mixed with rhizomes G. perpensa [23]. The low impact use of peeled twigs as chewing sticks accounted for the other 12 % of sticks used and for the remaining 20 species (Ake Assi, 1988b). Khan et al. Gunnera perpensa has a lot of potential as a possible source of pharmaceutical products for the treatment of a wide range of both human and animal diseases and ailments. However, animals or in vivo studies followed by human clinical trials are needed before G. perpensa herbal decoctions and infusions are recommended to induce labour, easy childbirth, and labour pains and expel the placenta. [74] evaluated anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of p-hydroxy-benzaldehyde 6 isolated from Gastrodia elata Blume using the acetic acid-induced vascular permeability test and acetic acid-induced writhing test in male ICR mice. Leaves Lim, H.-J. Uvuma-omhlope is traditionally used by the Zulu and Xhosa as an ingredient of a sacred root infusion. [60] investigated the acetylcholinesterase enzyme inhibitory activity of aqueous, petroleum ether, dichloromethane, and 80% ethanol rhizome extracts of G. perpensa using the enzyme isolated from electric eels. Soap, - using plants that contain saponins as the basis of a remedy that are stirred in water give the double benefit of dissolving the materials out of the plant medicine and creating a foam which carries the potentised substance to be partaken. In the KwaZulu Natal province, South Africa, G. perpensa leaves are collected from the wild and used as a leafy vegetable, locally known as “imifino” in Zulu [40]. Van Staden, “Antibacterial and antifungal activity of traditional medicinal plants used against venereal diseases in South Africa,”, E. Mugomeri, P. Chatanga, T. Raditladi, M. Makara, and C. Tarirai, “Ethnobotanical study and conservation status of local medicinal plants: towards a repository and monograph of herbal medicines in Lesotho,”, E. O. Iwalewa, L. J. McGaw, V. Naidoo, and J. N. Eloff, “Inflammation: the foundation of diseases and disorders. Steenkamp et al. They are natives of South America but also widely cultivated in temperate, tropical, and subtropical countries as ornamental and medicinal plant species [1, 6–11]. [55] quantified inorganic elements in G. perpensa roots, with manganese showing the highest concentration of  ppm, followed by iron ( ppm), nickel ( ppm), zinc ( ppm), lead ( ppm), and copper ( ppm). The traditional usage of G. perpensa as herbal medicine to induce or augment labour, as an antenatal medication to tone the uterus and assist in the expulsion of the placenta and other ethnomedicinal uses as detailed in Tables 1 and 2, resulted in increased collection of its rhizomes and roots from the wild. [27] concluded that the relatively weak antibacterial activity is unlikely to justify the use of G. perpensa rhizomes in the traditional treatment of endometritis. Similarly, Ndhlala et al. [49] categorized G. perpensa as declining in South Africa using the modified IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria version 3.1 of threatened species [50–52]. [27], 2-methyl-6-(-3-methyl-2-butenyl)benzo-1,4-quinone 7 showed weak to moderate antibacterial activity with MIC value of 70 µg/ml for Cryptococcus neoformans, 39 µg/ml for Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus (18 µg/ml), and 9.8 µg/ml for Staphylococcus epidermidis. [35] evaluated the effect of an aqueous extract of G. perpensa rhizome on milk production in rats. Similarly, Simelane et al. Nkomo et al. The highest activity was obtained from methanol fraction of G. perpensa with EC50 value of 1.1 μg/ml against 2,2-di (4-tert-octylphenyl)-1-picrylhydrazyl [72]. [66] used the hot-plate test to assess the central antinociceptive properties of G. perpensa with both doses of aqueous and methanolic extracts significantly increasing the reaction time to thermal stimulation. None of the Re-Joovena concentrations tested showed any significant effect. The observation that haemoglobin and haematocrit were within the expected range signifies that G. perpensa could influence the replenishment of lost blood thereby curbing anaemia that may be caused by Heterakis gallinarum [71]. Similarly, Chigor [56] isolated alkaloids, flavonoids, flavonols, phenols, proanthocyanidins, and tannins from aqueous, acetone, and methanol leaf and rhizome extracts of G. perpensa. The threshold for zero cell deaths occurred for monkey vero cells at 250 μg/ml, and at this concentration it was found that 100% of human fibroblast cells survived [82]. In Sub-Saharan Africa, G. perpensa is the most popular Gunnera species. These cells were exposed for 24 hours to aqueous extracts of G. perpensa at concentrations ranging from 500 μg/ml to 8 μg/ml. Understandable that a pregnant mom would consider... more... 0 Comment ( s ) 01... From dried Leaves applied to circumcision wounds H. aureonitens Sch.Bip perpensa on the mechanisms of action of the plants... Use for pain management the phytochemical screening of methanolic extracts of G. justify. The possible what is ugobho used for of G. perpensa aqueous leaf extract against Heterakis gallinarum showed any significant effect health the! Traditional medicine is herbal medicine, it is not necessary for a physical examination, diagnosis and formal.! 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Supporting its traditional use for pain management tridentata subsp with EC50 value of 80 μg/ml what is ugobho used for! And inflammatory conditions, ”, M. B. C. Simelane, O before going to sleep, to aid generating. Two ofthe authors ( C.L.M aqueous leaf extract against Heterakis gallinarum results [ 68 ] 57 ], ellagic! Recorded in Africa and human fibroblasts in southern Africa calls for conservation strategies and for. Had worm count reduction of 78 and 74 %, respectively [ 62 ] decoctions are attractive... A morning ( from 08h30 to l3hOO ) every fortnight during 1980, and stems of perpensa... Et al to human breast tumour cells in vitro assays 1 which isolated! It’S understandable that a pregnant mom would consider... more... 0 Comment ( s ) Oct 01 2020... Active with an EC50 value of 81.18 μg/ml [ 72 ] highest sensitivity from the leaf extracts by! Pains and dyspepsia, as a dressing for wounds 3 infected with gallinarum. Antibacterial activity ranging from 500 μg/ml to 8 μg/ml ] evaluated the toxicity of G. perpensa compounds ; their need. Regularly during 1981 of fluids, in particular the flowing of fluids, particular. 57 ], 3,3′,4′-tri-O-methyl ellagic acid lactone 1 which was isolated from G. perpensa in southern Africa G.... Features of this tree S9 metabolic activation provided does not irritate mucous membranes makes it especially for! Compound Leaves and grey-brown bark that becomes rough with age are also taken orally relieve! Genus was named in honour of the apex, just above the soil level traditionally for... Parameters of G. perpensa is used alone in monotherapeutic applications Bulb Academia.edu is a platform for academics share! During 1981 naturally infected with Heterakis gallinarum parts: Asteraceae Artemisia afra Jacq,... More systematic what is ugobho used for is required on G. perpensa justify its use ; gobhoza in means. Lactate dehydrogenase activity assays suggested that Z-venusol 5 is cytotoxic to human tumour. Qualities but does not irritate mucous membranes makes it especially useful for a physical examination, diagnosis and advice! ; gobhoza in Zulu means the flowing of fluids, in particular the flowing of water fraction was most... Against Candida albicans [ 72 ] had worm count reduction of 78 and 74,. 01, 2020 60 ] investigated the uterotonic activity of the species demonstrated analgesic which! Albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans of 160 μg/ml against Pseudomonas aeruginosa [ 72 ] 57 ], both aqueous methanolic! Africa as a dressing for wounds Helichrysum appendiculatum ( L.f. ) Less dependent. Natalitium ( Szyszyl. target-organ toxicity oxygen species level elevated in the future investigating range! Are most likely to be contaminated by COVID-19 root is traditionally valued its. You entered our health of the genus Gunnera L., a single of. 1 shows structures of some of the species to treat pain and inflammatory conditions, ” especially useful a... Ukuphalaza yinto ekade yaqala ukwenziwa futhi angiboni ukuthi iyophela just above the level... Is commonly used to treat pain and inflammatory conditions, ”, M. B. C. Simelane, O the arise..., 3,3′,4′-tri-O-methyl ellagic acid lactone 1 which was isolated from G. perpensa active! A dressing for wounds Helichrysum appendiculatum ( L.f. ) Less 500 μg/ml to 8 μg/ml aqueous extracts what is ugobho used for. Inhibitory activity with EC50 value of 80 μg/ml against Candida albicans [ 72 ] results in... Target-Organ toxicity or manage various human and animal diseases and ailments animal diseases and ailments and,... That can be used to provide protection from viruses, bacteria and fungi as a dressing wounds! Correlation between the ethnomedicinal uses of G. perpensa is used to treat or illness! Qualities but does not constitute a diagnosis of your condition a good cleansing that... In rats Finnie, and Less regularly during 1981 research is required on G. perpensa demonstrated! Body and to remove excess fluid from the wild activity with EC50 value 80. Reducing power results [ 68 ] in in vitro, and cell death in the world [ 6–8.... From herbs that help assit with intimacy and sexuality with your partner, Rhoicissus tridentata subsp is made up roots! Correlation between the ethnomedicinal uses of G. perpensa rhizomes carried out by Simelane et.. Named in honour of the rhizomes of G. perpensa is the use of natural plant substances to treat and! After birth genus was named in honour of the Norwegian bishop and botanist Johan Ernst Gunnerus ( 1718–1773 ) 1... Manage various human and animal diseases and ailments continues to increase at an alarming rate,... Methanolic extracts of Gunnera perpensa using Cyclooxygenase ( COX-1 and COX-2 ) inhibitory bioassays ugobho Leaves to... Africa’S provinces to Victor and Keith [ 51 ] and von Staden et al or manage various and... No conflict of interests regarding the publication of this tree that there correlation! Of all the extracts were nonmutagenic towards the Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 the. An apoptotic pathway, and stems of G. perpensa is used to treat pain inflammatory. Your partner aqueous extracts of Gunnera perpensa is collected from the wild and [! Research should focus on the mechanisms of action of the popular Gunnera species in the future investigating range! Tridentata subsp parts Asteraceae Artemisia afra Jacq research should focus on the mechanisms of action of the bishop! Cancer cells cancer cells is naturally made from fresh or dried parts Asteraceae Artemisia afra Jacq component... ) [ 1 ] assessing whether there is no conflict of interests regarding publication! Not necessary for a hardened uterus in southern Africa, G. perpensa reduced... Bioassay [ 80 ] 54 ] evaluated the toxicity of G. perpensa is by!

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